Assessing Learning Effectively


Grading and classroom assessment are often viewed as tedious activities, rather than exciting teaching moments. While grading may not be exciting, it is a vital piece in the process of student learning, and could be considered the ultimate teachable moment. It is through assignments, grades, and instructor feedback that students behavior, skills and knowledge are shaped. Yet grades are often inadequate, imprecise, and subjective.


How do we use grading and assessment as a process for learning rather than of learning? Here are four lessons about classroom assessment from the literature:

  • Will this be on the test?
    Assessment directs students’ time and energy – take advantage of it. Measure what you value most. Use your grading practices to tell student not only what content they should focus on, but what type of learning (cognitive skills) you want them to be developing during your course.
  • Avoid the “gotcha” game
    Clarity of assignments is important and does not in itself dumb down learning. The goal of an assignment is usually to improve students’ knowledge or skills, not to test their ability to read directions. Keep students’ time and energy focused on learning by telling them what you want them to do and how well you want them to do it.
  • Emphasize depth over breadth
    The ‘coverage’ problem is hard to overcome. Studies from neuroscience and about novices and experts show depth is better than breadth for deeper levels of learning. Knowing one concept in depth is considered better for long term retention than shallow memorization of many unrelated facts. Through your assignments and exams, explicitly ask students to spend time developing the necessary mental structures in your content area.
  • Align learning goals, assignments and assessments
    Assessment methods make sense and are less frustrating for instructors and students when they clearly support the learning goals and what students “practice doing” during the course. This satirical video of teaching a dance class through lecture shows an extreme version, but if the message is simple. Not only should we grade what we want students to learn, but also give them time to practice these skills during the course.
  • Assess using multiple methods, continual feedback, over time
    Break up your summative assessments into smaller pieces, and use formative assessment as much as you can. Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) are useful for formative assessment. Consider these lessons from the literature:

What makes summative assessment successful? [Thomas Angelo’s (1996) framework of AAHE’s 9 Principles of Good Practice for Assessing Student Learning (1992) Principle #2]
o Use multiple methods of assessment
o Assess multiple dimensions of learning
o Use multiple assessors
o Assess over time

What makes formative assessment successful? (Black & Wiliam, 1998, Assessment Reform Group, 1999)
o Frequent and timely feedback
o Precise feedback
o Students having a chance to use the feedback given to them
o The instructor changing course content or teaching methods based on student feedback

Essentially, assessing learning throughout a course, in different ways, and with timely, specific feedback is more conducive to learning than requiring one or two high stakes assessments and providing general feedback after the quarter is over. Try to make each assessment a learning opportunity for students.

Additional Resources

© 2014 University of Denver - Office of Teaching & Learning