Ensuring Collegiality and Civility: A Classroom Management Quick Guide

Ensuring Collegiality and Civility: A Classroom Management Quick Guide

By Valentina Iturbe-LaGrave, Director of Inclusive Teaching Practices; Leslie Cramblet Alvarez, Director of the Office of Teaching and Learning; Christina Paguyo, Director of Academic Assessment; Christine Vega, IRISE Postdoctoral Research Fellow

This classroom management quick guide is designed to support collegiality, civility, and inclusivity in all learning environments. The suggestions herein are intended to create collegial classroom interactions at DU. Because of the fatigue, stress, anxiety, trauma, and uncertainty brought forth by the compounded impact of the pandemic, racial reckonings, climate change, and election season, it is essential to keep in mind anchoring principles of an inclusive classroom climate that can serve as classroom interaction guideposts throughout this challenging time and beyond. A small investment in the classroom climate to remind ourselves and our students about classroom norms may create a more welcoming, supportive, and peaceful environment. These small but powerful approaches to classroom climate, discussions, and ground rules can pay dividends for the mental health of faculty and students. 

We recognize you are beyond exhausted and doing everything possible to support our students and yourself. We hope these resources about classroom climate can nourish a learning environment of collegiality and civility for you and your students. Thank you for your commitment to the DU community, and please email otl@du.edu  if there is anything the OTL can do to support your teaching. 

Additional Resources for election-specific advice:

I have already established classroom norms; what do I do next?

Courses with established classroom norms present many opportunities for developing sophisticated discussion skills that increase students’ ability to interact across different viewpoints, opinions, backgrounds, and knowledge bases. In this section, we introduce practical strategies for deeply engaging students in democratic classroom discussions. Remember, “how we ask questions can make the difference between a discussion that goes nowhere and one that turns into a complex communal dialogue that bounces all around the room” (Brookfield & Preskill, 2005, p. 85).

Establishing classroom norms is a critical first step to ensuring an inclusive classroom environment where different perspectives are explored. Even more pressing still is ensuring that students can revisit, revise, and add to the classroom norms throughout the academic quarter. Doing so is essential to establishing a deep sense of ownership, commitment, and accountability to their interactions in the learning environment. Communicating to students that they can regulate how they communicate and interact with one another across potential disagreement minimizes the need for top-down interventions when issues arise. Students will often keep one another in check and begin to establish rapport with one another as they move through disagreements in a collegial and civil manner that upholds critical thinking and academic discourse. Here is a simple way to ensure you revisit, assess, and ensure buy-in in classroom norms:

1. Revisit: Share the classroom norms with students, and critically review each norm by asking probing questions that move students closer to concrete, applicable community strategies for moving through potentially contentious interactions. Potential prompts:

    • “How do we feel about this norm? Is there anything we need to add/change as we move forward?”
    • “What exactly do we mean as a group when we say…”
    • “Do we want to think about ways to ‘process’ while we’re learning online? For example, do we want to allow each other to turn-off the camera if we need time to process something that feels triggering or difficult?”
    • “After today’s discussion, is there anything we want to add to our classroom norms?”
    • “Please email me any further suggestions you have that you may not have wanted to share publicly today.”

2. Assess: It is crucial to assess students’ understanding, commitment, and buy-in of the classroom norms. The overarching goal of classroom norms is to serve as dynamic community agreements that ensure different voices, worldviews, and viewpoints are welcomed and honored in the learning environment. Consider engaging the class in this activity as a discussion, or, allow students to rate themselves and the class as a whole. One option is to survey students by creating a Qualtrics Survey gaging students’ comfort level and commitment to upholding the norms:

    • On a scale from 1-10, 1 being the lowest and 10 highest , how would you rate your commitment to upholding our norms in classroom discussions and/or interactions?
    • On a scale from 1-10, 1 being the lowest and 10 highest , how would you rate your classmates ability to uphold our norms in classroom discussions and/or interactions?
    • What classroom norms do you find reassuring and why?
    • What classroom norms would you like to edit/change and why?
    • How confident do you feel in referring to our class norms during a challenging interaction in class?

3. Invite Buy-in: Share the survey finding with your students anonymously, and facilitate a 30-minute classroom discussion around the classroom norms and ways to ensure they align with student expectations. As you move through the discussion, take note of any grievances that may come up, and successes that arise. Restate these to the class so they understand the level of care and attention you take with these norm-setting processes. You can begin this discussion by asking specific questions such as:

    • What norms help us to explore a diversity of perspectives? Do we need to include new norms to accomplish this?
    • How might these norms increase our learning community’s awareness of and tolerance for complex issues that we may not be able to “solve” in class?
    • Are there specific norms that ensure this is a space where attentive and respectful listening are expected?
    • How might we include norms that help us ensure that we respect each other’s voices and experiences, even when they differ greatly from our own?
    • In what ways do these norms increase our intellectual agility and discussion skills?

Evidence Questions: “These questions are asked when participants state an opinion that seems unconnected to what’s already been said or that someone else in the group thinks is erroneous, unsupported, or unjustified. The question should be asked as a simple request for more information, not as a challenge to the speaker’s intelligence” (Brookfield & Preskill, 2005, p. 86).

 

    • What data is that claim based on?
    • What does the author/ text say that supports your argument?
    • Where did you find that view expressed in the text?
    • What evidence would you give to someone who doubted your interpretation?

 

Clarifying Questions: “Clarifying questions give speakers the chance to expand on their ideas so that they are understood by others in the group. They should be an invitation to convey one’s meaning in the most complete sense possible” (Brookfield & Preskill, 2005, p. 86).

 

    • Can you put that another way?
    • What’s a good example of what you are talking about?
    • What do you mean by that?
    • Can you explain the term you just used, or how you are defining it?
    • Could you give a different illustration to your point?

 

Linking or Extension Questions: “Linking or extension questions actively engage students in building on one another’s responses to questions” (Brookfield & Preskill, 2005, p. 87).

 

    • Is there any connection between what you’ve just said and what your classmate was saying a moment ago?
    • How does your comment fit in with your classmate’s earlier comment?
    • How does your observation relate to what the group decided last week?
    • Does your idea challenge or support what we seem to be saying?
    • How does that contribution add to what has already been said?

 

Summary and Synthesis Questions: “These questions invite students to summarize or synthesize what has been thought and said. These questions call on participants to identify important ideas and think about them in ways that will aid recall” (Brookfield & Preskill, 2005, p. 88).

 

    • What are the one or two most important ideas that emerged from this discussion?
    • What remains unresolved or contentious about this topic?
    • What do you understand better as a result of today’s discussion?
    • Based on our discussion today, what do we need to talk about next time if we’re to understand this issue better?
    • What key word or concept best captures our discussion today?

 

“Practice in playing different conversational roles helps students see that expressing a point of view is only one way to contribute to a discussion. It also helps create opportunities for the more tentative students to speak, thereby building their confidence” (Brookfield & Preskill, 2005, p. 113). Here are specific roles you can introduce and assign to students that help some students to participate more, and others to practice active listening. Remember, it is important to review classroom norms and exercise expectations before trying out these conversational roles.

    • Problem, dilemma, or theme poser:This student introduces the topic of conversation, drawing on personal ideas and experiences as a way of helping others into conversation about a theme. 
    • Reflective analyst: This student keeps a record of the conversation’s development, giving every ten minutes or so a summary that focuses on shared concerns, issues the group is skirting, and emerging common themes.
    • Scrounger: This student listens for helpful resources, suggestions, and tips that participants have voiced as they discuss how to work through a problem, and keeps a record to read out before the class ends. 
    • Devil’s advocate: This student listens carefully for any emerging consensus and then formulates and expresses a contrary view to keep groupthink in check. 
    • Detective: This student listens attentively for unacknowledged, unchecked, and unchallenged biases related to culture, race, class, or gender that emerge in the conversation and brings them to the group’s attention. The faculty member can consider carrying out this role at first, so that students have a chance to see how to look for blindspots.
    • Theme spotter: This student identifies themes that arise during the discussion that are left unexplored and that might be the focus of a future classroom discussion.
    • Umpire: This student listens for judgmental comments that may be offensive, insulting, and demeaning and that contradict ground rules/classroom norms for respectful conversation generated by group members. 

Students are asked to write their answers to one or more of the following sentences in this straightforward and dynamic exercise. They are thus redirected in their thinking to ensure that what is discussed is connected to their concerns. These sentence-starters can also work well in discussion posts, Zoom breakout groups, and written reflections.

Instructions: If you have a large class, put students into four or five groups and have them read their sentences to one another. If your class is relatively small, this can be done as a whole-class group.

  1. Write down your response(s). 
  2. Share with your classmate(s).
  3. As you listen to your classmates, jot down the responses you’d like to hear more about.
  4. Begin class discussion by asking classmates about the responses they wanted to hear more about.

Questions:

 

    • What most struck me about the text we read to prepare for the discussion today is…
    • The question that I’d most like to ask the author of the text is…
    • The most crucial point in last week’s lecture was…
    • The part of the lecture (or text, or discussion) that I felt made the most sense to me was…
    • The part of the lecture (or text, or discussion) that I felt was the most confusing was…

 

Paulo Freire observed that “a liberating teacher will illuminate reality even if [they] lecture” (Shor and Freire, 1987, p.40). Borrowing from this principle, the following suggestions help faculty members to use lectures to model democratic talk and discussion in their learning environments. 

    • Begin every lecture with one or more questions that you’re trying to answer: posing questions frames the lecture as part of a continuous effort to explore a specific academic subject. This signals to students that while discussions will bring up many topics and feelings, the anchoring goal is to answer a specific question.
    • End every lecture with a series of questions that your lecturer has raised or left unanswered: Point out all the new questions that have been raised and which have been left unanswered or reframed in a more provocative or contentious manner. 
    • Deliberately introduce periods of silence: One barrier to good discussion is people’s belief that conversation means continuous talk. Allow students to say:
      • “I need to think about that for a minute or two before I respond.”
      • “I need time to process this.”
      • “This brings up some emotions for me, and I need a minute to pull my thoughts together.” 
    • Introduce buzz groups into lectures: Buzz groups are made up of three or four students, who are given a few minutes once or twice during a lecture to discuss a question or an issue that arises. Ask students to make some judgements on the merits, relevance, or usefulness of the elements of a lecture by asking questions such as:
      • What’s the most contentious statement you’ve heard so far in the lecture today?
      • What’s the most important point that’s been made in the lecture so far?
      • What question would you most like to have answered regarding the topic of lecture today?
      • What’s the most unsupported assertion you’ve heard in the lecture so far?
      • Of all the ideas and points you’ve heard so far today, which is most obscure or ambiguous to you?

I haven’t established classroom norms; what do I do? 

Classroom norms should be established and revisited frequently, especially during difficult times when incivility and division can render many classroom interactions difficult. Regardless of what academic discipline you teach, classroom norms are useful guideposts for students and faculty alike. What is shared below can help you set up your classroom norms and get in the practice of revisiting them throughout the academic quarter. Remember, it is never too late to establish clear expectations around speaking, listening, discussion, and collaborative group-work. 

    • Listen to understand the words spoken rather than thinking about what to say next.
    • Strive to understand the point before either approving or criticizing.
    • Take note of points of agreement as well as disagreement within the group.
    • Raise questions that help clarify and explain key points.
    • Raise questions that extend and deepen the conversation.
    • Be fully present. Pay 100 percent attention to the words, the person’s body language, and the energy behind the words.
    • Maintain absolute silence when someone is speaking. Side conversations or exchanging looks undermines safety.
    • Accept others’ sharing without judgment. Don’t try to debate, correct, or give advice. Just listen, even if you don’t agree.
    • Accept yourself and what you feel without judgment. Allow time to process feelings.
    • Listening is enough. You don’t have to fix anyone. No need to offer solutions.
    • Listen, listen again with intention, and process what you hear before speaking.
    • If you don’t understand, ask for clarification. 
    • Treat the candidness of others as a gift and honor their confidentiality.
    • Accept discomfort as a catalyst for change.
    • Be comfortable with silence. 
    • Speak from the “I” perspective. Talk about yourself, not others.
    • Talk about experiences you have had rather than opinions or philosophies.
    • When conflict arises, express feelings rather than thoughts or opinions. This helps move through conflict to new understanding.
    • Give feedback offering support and respect.
    • If you make mistakes, learn from them, and then let them go.
    • Be honest. Say what you think and how you feel.
    • Lean into the risk. Get real. Be the one to break it open.
    • Everyone has the right to be heard.
    • Be respectful while still being critical.
    • No name calling.
    • One person speaks at a time.
    • Maintain confidentiality.
    • Hold yourself and each other to high standards of excellence at all times.
    • Practice humility and recognize that you do not know everything and that everyone can stand to learn.
    •  Recognize that everyone will start from different bases of knowledge.

Building teamwork skills is critical for successful group work and future success in the workplace. Many students claim to hate group work. As faculty, we forget that students don’t naturally know how to work as part of a group. We must teach ways to engage with groups. Below is adapted from William Baker, Group Dynamics Associates, by faculty members in the Educational Leadership and Policy Studies Program in the Morgridge College of Education at DU. 

  1.   Paraphrasing

Using a paraphrase starter that is comfortable for you: “So…” or “As you are…” or “You’re thinking…” and following the statement with a paraphrase assists members of the group to hear and understand each other as they formulate decisions.

 

  1.   Pausing

Pausing before responding or asking a question allows time for thinking and enhances dialogue, discussion, and decision-making.

 

  1.   Probing

Using gentle open-ended probes or inquiries such as, “Please say more…” or “Can you tell me more about…” or “Then, are you saying…?” increases clarity and precision of the group’s thinking.

 

  1.   Putting ideas on the table:

Ideas are the heart of meaningful dialogue.  Label the intention of your comments.  For example, you might say, “Here is one idea…” or “One thought I have is…” or “Here is a possible approach…” or “I’m just thinking out loud…”

 

  1.   Paying attention to self and others

Meaningful dialogue is facilitated when each group member is conscious of self and others and is aware of not only what he/she is saying, but also how it is said and how others are responding.  This includes paying attention to learning style when planning for, facilitating and participating in group meetings. Responding to others in their language forms is one way to enact this norm.

 

  1.   Presuming positive intentions

Assuming that other’s intentions are positive promotes and facilitates meaningful dialogue and eliminates unintentional put-downs. Using positive intentions in your speech is one manifestation of this norm.

 

  1.   Pursuing a balance between advocacy and inquiry

Pursuing and maintaining a balance between advocating for a position and inquiring about one’s own and others’ positions assists the group to become a learning organization.

Establishing classroom norms is a critical first step to ensuring an inclusive classroom environment where different perspectives are explored. Even more pressing still is ensuring that students can revisit, revise, and add to the classroom norms throughout the academic quarter. Doing so is essential to establishing a deep sense of ownership, commitment, and accountability to their interactions in the learning environment. Communicating to students that they can regulate how they communicate and interact with one another across potential disagreement minimizes the need for top-down interventions when issues arise. Students will often keep one another in check and begin to establish rapport with one another as they move through disagreements in a collegial and civil manner that upholds critical thinking and academic discourse. Here is a simple way to ensure you revisit, assess, and ensure buy-in in classroom norms:

  1. Revisit: Share the classroom norms with students, and critically review each norm by asking probing questions that move students closer to concrete, applicable community strategies for moving through potentially contentious interactions. Potential prompts:
    • “How do we feel about this norm? Is there anything we need to add/change as we move forward?”
    • “What exactly do we mean as a group when we say…”
    • “Do we want to think about ways to ‘process’ while we’re learning online? For example, do we want to allow each other to turn-off the camera if we need time to process something that feels triggering or difficult?”
    • “After today’s discussion, is there anything we want to add to our classroom norms?”
    • “Please email me any further suggestions you have that you may not have wanted to share publicly today.”
  1. Assess: It is crucial to assess students’ understanding, commitment, and buy-in of the classroom norms. The overarching goal of classroom norms is to serve as dynamic community agreements that ensure different voices, worldviews, and viewpoints are welcomed and honored in the learning environment. Consider engaging the class in this activity as a discussion, or, allow students to rate themselves and the class as a whole. One option is to survey students by creating a Qualtrics Survey gaging students’ comfort level and commitment to upholding the norms:
    • On a scale from 1-10, 1 being the lowest and 10 highest , how would you rate your commitment to upholding our norms in classroom discussions and/or interactions?
    • On a scale from 1-10, 1 being the lowest and 10 highest , how would you rate your classmates ability to uphold our norms in classroom discussions and/or interactions?
    • What classroom norms do you find reassuring and why?
    • What classroom norms would you like to edit/change and why?
    • How confident do you feel in referring to our class norms during a challenging interaction in class?
  1. Invite Buy-in: Share the survey finding with your students anonymously, and facilitate a 30-minute classroom discussion around the classroom norms and ways to ensure they align with student expectations. As you move through the discussion, take note of any grievances that may come up, and successes that arise. Restate these to the class so they understand the level of care and attention you take with these norm-setting processes. You can begin this discussion by asking specific questions such as:
    • What norms help us to explore a diversity of perspectives? Do we need to include new norms to accomplish this?
    • How might these norms increase our learning community’s awareness of and tolerance for complex issues that we may not be able to “solve” in class?
    • Are there specific norms that ensure this is a space where attentive and respectful listening are expected?
    • How might we include norms that help us ensure that we respect each other’s voices and experiences, even when they differ greatly from our own?
    • In what ways do these norms increase our intellectual agility and discussion skills?

What are strategies to prepare for difficult discussions?

    •  I’m really nervous/scared/uncomfortable saying this and/but … 
    •  From my experience/perspective as [identity] … 
    • I’m afraid I may offend someone, and please let me know if I do, but … 
    • I’m not sure if this will make any sense, and/but … 
    • I just felt something shift in the room. I’m wondering if anyone else did. 
    • It seems as though some people may have had a reaction to that. Can you help me understand why? 
    • Can you help me understand whether what I’m thinking right now might be problematic? 
    • This is what I understand you to be saying: ____ Is that accurate? 
    • I’m having a “yeah but.” Can you help me work through it? 
    •  I’m engaged but just needing time to process this. What I am working on processing is _____.

A common vocabulary is critical to difficult discussions, especially when it comes to the experience of historically marginalized groups. We have included some key terms here:

    • Stereotypes cause alienation and marginalization among those who are the target of unfair generalizations. Students who have experienced stereotypes or expect to be viewed or judged in a certain way may encounter tensions and cognitive disturbances that interfere with learning (Ambrose et al., 2010, pp. 173-179).

 

    • Microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral and environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial, gender, sexual orientation, and religious slights and insults to the target person or group (Sue, 2010). Microaggressions affect students’ ability to learn; create a hostile and invalidating campus or work climate (Solórzano et al., 2000); and lower productivity and problem-solving abilities (Dovidio, 2001).

 

    • Racial Microaggressions are subtle, innocuous, preconscious, or unconscious degradations, putdowns, verbal and kinetic -e.g., staring, averted gazes, gestures, exasperated looks, and body language. It is important to remember that the cumulative burden of a lifetime of microaggressions can theoretically contribute to augmented morbidity and flattened confidence (Pierce, 1995). 

 

    • Gender Microaggressions devaluate women’s contributions, objectify them as sex objects, dismiss their accomplishments, and limit their effectiveness in social, educational, employment, and professional settings (Benokraitis, 1997).

 

    • Sexual-Orientation Microaggressions thematically contain overt and covert messages that include seeing LGBTs in a narrow sexual way, exposing them to homophobia, heterosexist language, religious concepts of sinfulness, to beliefs of abnormality, and to invalidations of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, which are central to healthy sexual identities (Sue, 2010).

 

    • Microinsults (often unconscious) communications that convey rudeness and insensitivity and demean a person (Sue, 2010).

 

    • Microinvalidations (often unconscious) exclude, negate, or nullify the psychological thoughts, feelings or experiential reality (Sue, 2010).

Feeling overwhelmed by blank faces, either due to reluctance to participate or literal blank zoom screens? Consider ways to break the silence with some helpful discussion starter prompt stems. Consider what Brookfield & Preskill (2016) offer in “The Discussion Book” in the chapter, Structured Silence. Silence is an element of conversational rhythm and setting the tone to acknowledge and make these pauses comfortable. The purposes of Structured Silence are: 

    • Embedding periods of silence in discussions to set comfort and routine .
    • Assists in keeping discussion grounded and focused for important points and new questions.
    • Create space for those who have not contributed and opportunity to share and shape the conversation.

How to apply it: 

    • Every 15 min facilitator asks people to pause for 2-3 min to think about a question below are suggestions from Brookfield & Preskill (2016):
      • “What’s the most important point that’s been made so far today”
      • “What questions have been raised for you in the discussion up to now?”
      • “Which of your assumptions about the topic have been confirmed and which have been challenged in the last twenty minutes?”
      • “What important perspectives are we missing?”
      • “What’s so confusing or puzzling that we need to revisit it?”. 
      • Responses can be shared anonymously on a Canvas or Padlet

Watch for: 

    • Discomfort with silence: Students may show discomfort the first couple of times, play instrumental music in the background. 
    • Mistiming silence: Use your best judgement and ignore structured silence if the discussion is going well to not interrupt the momentum and energy of a discussion. 

What are strategies to managing hot-moments?

The CIQ is a simple classroom evaluation tool used to determine how students are learning while modeling how to think and speak critically and democratically in their own lives. The CIQ is a helpful tool to use when a heated moment arises in class because it allows the faculty member to pause the class by stating, “Something has shifted in this space, and I’d like us all to take some time to reflect.” The faculty member can then ask students to answer one, two, or all CIQ questions and turn them in. In online classes, this can be done as an email to the professor. In face-to-face classrooms, these can be anonymous papers. In both scenarios, students are given time to reframe their reactions to a particular issue within who they are as learners.

Instructions:

Please take about five minutes to respond to the questions below about this week’s class. Don’t put your name on the form – your responses are anonymous. If nothing comes to mind for any of the questions just leave the space blank. At the next class we will share the group’s responses with all of you. Thanks for taking the time to do this. What you write will help us make the class more responsive to your concerns. 

Questions:

    • At what moment in class this week did you feel most engaged with what was happening? 
    • At what moment in class this week were you most distanced from what was happening? 
    • What action that anyone (teacher or student) took this week did you find most affirming or helpful? 
    • What action that anyone took this week did you find most puzzling or confusing? 
    • What about the class this week surprised you the most? (This could be about your own reactions to what went on, something that someone did, or anything else that occurs).

Faculty members often ask me how to respond to hot-moments in real-time. Because there are myriad issues to consider when responding to a student, a student-student interaction, or even a faculty-student interaction, it is essential to remember that we must uphold a sophisticated level of critical engagement with students at all times. Students learn how to engage in collegial and civil discourse by emulating faculty who engage in democratic discussion. As such, here is a technique I often recommend to all faculty members:

  1. Pause & Recognize: Recognize that something has happened in the learning environment requiring that the classroom discussion/interaction be halted. Here are suggestions for pausing:
    • “Let’s hit the pause button here as something has shifted in this space.”
    • “I want to stop here, and recognize that something problematic/hurtful/uncollegial has been stated/shared/posted.”
    • “Let’s pause right here. I am having an emotional response to something that has been shared in this space, and I may not be the only one feeling this way.”

 

  1. Assess: Allow students to process and articulate their reactions and emotions in a private manner. Ask students to take five minutes to answer the Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ) and send their answers to you.

 

  1. Respond: It is important to recognize that faculty members are humans, and that heated classroom moments may bring up a series of reactions that require time to reflect. What is not often recognized, however, is that it is okay not to know how to respond in real-time. Instead, circle back with students and let them know you will address the situation via email later in the day, and in the next class period. Recognizing that these instances may challenge our courage in the classroom, it is important to reach out to a trusted colleague/ Chair/Dean and OTL director immediately after class. At DU, the director for inclusive teaching practices is available to help you address and work through classroom situations in the most restorative way possible. Here are suggestions for communicating this to your students:
    • “Thank you for filling out the CIQ. I will read your responses carefully and circle back with a plan to revisit what happened today. If you were emotionally impacted in today’s class, please reach out to me privately after class. I am here to support you.”
    • “Thank you for taking the time to share your reflections on today’s class/discussion. I will be reading these carefully and reaching out to campus partners to explore the best ways of bringing our community together after today. If you were emotionally impacted in today’s class, please reach out to me privately after class. I am here to support you.”
    • “I understand today was a difficult class, and I appreciate you all taking the time to reflect. If you were emotionally impacted in today’s class, please reach out to me privately after class. I am here to support you.” 

Citations

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. John Wiley & Sons.

Benokraitis, N. V. (1997). Subtle sexism: Current practice and prospects for change. Sage Publications, Inc.

Brown, S. C. (2010). Students as cultural beings. In M. Fallon & S.C. Brown (Eds.), Teaching inclusively in higher education. (pp. 17-37). Information Age Publishing Co.

Brookfield, S.D. & Preskill, S. (2016). The Discussion Book: 50 great ways to get people talking. (pp.153-156). Jossey-Bass. 

Cadinu, M., Maass, A., Rosabianca, A., & Kiesner, J. (2005). Why do women underperform under stereotype threat? Evidence for the role of negative thinking. Psychological Science, 16(7), 572-578.

Caldwell, M., Frame, O. (2017). Let’s Get Real: Exploring Race, Class, and Gender Identities in the Classroom. Routledge. 

Cohn, E. & Gareis, J. (2007). Faculty members as architects: Structuring diversity-accessible courses. In J. Branche, J.W. Mullennix, E.R. Cohn (Eds.), Diversity across the curriculum.(pp. 18-22). Anker Publishing.

DiAngelo, R. & Sensoy, Ö. (2020). White Fragility Reading Guide. Penguin Random House. Retrieved from https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/566247/white-fragility-by-robin-diangelo/9780807047415/readers-guide/ 

Dovidio, J. F. (2001). On the nature of contemporary prejudice: The third wave. Journal of Social Issues, 57(4), 829-849.

Ginsberg, M.B. & Whodkowski, R.J. (2009). Diversity and Motivation: Culturally responsive teaching in college, (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 1.

Greenberg, J., & Perry, A. (2005) Creating inclusive classrooms: A view through the student lens. In M.L. Ouellet (Ed.) Teaching Inclusively: Resources for course, department and institutional change in higher education. (pp. 551-565). New Forums Press

Hall, S. (1982). The classroom climate: A chilly one for women? Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges.

Milem, J., Chang, M., & Antonio, A. (2005). Making diversity work: A researched-based perspective. AAC&U.

Pierce, C.M. (1995). Stress analogs of racism and sexism: Terrorism, torture, and disaster. P.P.R. In C.V. Williw, B.M. Kramer, & B.S. Brown (Eds.) (Ed.) Mental Health, racism, and sexism (pp. 277.293).

Rowe, M.P. (1990). Barriers to equality: The power of subtle discrimination to maintain unequal opportunity. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 3(2), 153-163.

Salazar, M., Norton, A., & Tuitt, F. (2009). Weaving promising practices for inclusive excellence into the higher education classroom. In L.B. Nilson and J.E. Miller (Eds.) To improve the academy. (pp. 208-226).

Salvatore, J., & Shelton, J. N. (2007). Cognitive costs of exposure to racial prejudice. Psychological Science, 18(9), 810-815.

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